Learning Goal: I’m working on a history multi-part question and need a sample dr

Learning Goal: I’m working on a history multi-part question and need a sample draft to help me learn. Do you agree with argument that Bacon’s Rebellion (1675-76) was a major
turning point in Virginia’s shift toward becoming a slave society, with
racism fully instituted in its laws? Or does the evidence from this week’s readings tell you something else?To answer this question, you first need to carefully watch the argument, and then you need to think about the nature of the laws you’re
reading concerning race and slavery before and after Bacon’s Rebellion.
There is no doubt that laws concerning slavery were already
solidifying the institution before Bacon’s Rebellion. But do you think
these laws before 1675 were designed to also create a strict race-based
society by institutionalizing a kind of racism that elevated all white
Virginians over all Blacks in Virginia? Or do we only see such attempts
to create this kind of systematic racism in Virginia after Bacon’s
Rebellion? In other words, do the nature and goals of the laws change
after Bacon’s Rebellion, or do you see a more natural evolution of laws
whose development seem to have little relation to Bacon’s Rebellion?Reference specific laws as you make your casehttps://www.americanyawp.com/text/04-colonial-soci… Virginia Laws Concerning Servitude, Slavery, and Race, 1639-1723Source: http://www.virtualjamestown.org/laws1.html#4As you read these early Virginia laws concerning servitude,
slavery, and race, think about how these concepts evolved over the 17th century and into the early 18th.What did servitude and slavery have in common?In what ways were they differentiated over time?What factor did race play in the laws concerning servitude and slavery?How was racial difference written into the laws?How did these laws affect free blacks?Was
institutionalized racism against Blacks present from the early days of
Africans in Virginia, or was it something that emerged over time?Do
you think Bacon’s Rebellion (1675-76) marked a turning point in the
institutionalization of racism in Virginia, or did the laws passed after
this event merely enhance a racism that was already present by the
1660s? Reading Questions:1) How can this series of laws help us come to a fuller understanding of the early history of Virginia?Of the history of slavery in Virginia?Of race in Virginia?Of indentured servitude?2) What similarities do you see between the treatment of black slaves and white servants?What differences?How do these change over time, if at all?3) What does the appearance of a new law suggest to us about the prior condition of slaves and servants in Virginia?For
example, what might the 1670 law prescribing that “all servants not
being christians imported into this colony by shipping shalbe slaves for
their lives” suggest to us about the condition of servants of African
origin prior to 1670?What do the other new laws
(and the perceived necessity for these new laws) suggest about what life
was like for servants and slaves before they were passed?4) Why do you think the 1691 law declared free blacks “great inconveniences”?Why
were free blacks seen as problematic to Virginia by 1691? Does this
suggest their existence was not consider a problem earlier in the
century?January 1639/40-ACT X.[This statute created a legal distinction between white and black men.]ALL persons except negroes to be provided with arms and ammunition or be fined at pleasure of the Governor and Council.March 1660/1-ACT XXII. English running away with negroes.[This law indicates that some Africans and their descendants were
not servants for life. However, if an indentured servant ran away with a
black person who was considered a servant for life, the white servant
had to serve additional time to compensate a master (or masters) for
his/her absence and for the absence of the black individual.]BEE itt enacted That in case any English servant shall run away in
company with any negroes who are incapable of makeing satisfaction by
addition of time, Bee it enacted that the English so running away in
company with them shall serve for the time of the said negroes absence
as they are to do for their owne by a former act.March 1661/2-ACT CXXXVIII. Concerning Indians.[The legislators decided that Native American and English servants were to serve their masters the same length of time.]And be it further enacted that what Englishman, trader, or other
shall bring in any Indians as servants and shall assigne them over to
any other, shall not sell them for slaves nor for any longer time than
English of the like ages should serve by act of assembly.December 1662-ACT XII. Negro women’s children to serve according to the condition of the mother.[As of December 1662, the child of an enslaved mother was also a
slave for life. The statute was a dramatic departure from the English
tradition in which a child received his or her status from his or her
father. Members of the General Assembly also hoped that an increased
fine would discourage white men and women from having sexual partners
who were African or of African descent.]Whereas some doubts have arisen whether children got by any Englishman upon a Negro woman should be slave or free, be it therefore enacted and declared by this present Grand Assembly, that
all children born in this country shall be held bond or free only
according to the condition of the mother; and that if any Christian
shall commit fornication with a Negro man or woman, he or she so
offending shall pay double the fines imposed by the former act.September 1667-ACT III. An act declaring that baptisme of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage.[The passage of this statute indicates that Christianity was
important to the concept of English identity. Legislators decided that
slaves born in Virginia could not become free if they were baptized, but
masters were encouraged to Christianize their enslaved laborers.]WHEREAS some doubts have risen whether children that are slaves by
birth, and by the charity and piety of their owners made pertakers of
the blessed sacrament of baptisme, should by vertue of their baptisme be
made ffree; It is enacted and declared by this grand assembly, and the
authority thereof, that the conferring of baptisme doth not alter the
condition of the person as to his bondage or ffreedome; that diverse
masters, ffreed from this doubt, may more carefully endeavour the
propagation of christianity by permitting children, though slaves, or
those of greater growth if capable to be admitted to that sacrament.October 1669-ACT I. An act about the casuall killing of slaves.[Colonial leaders decided that corporal punishment was the only
way in which a master could correct a slave since his or her time of
service could not be extended. This law represents the loss of legal
protection for a slave’s life in Virginia. It also was the first of
several laws passed during the last thirty years of the seventeenth
century that reduced the personal rights of black men and women.]WHEREAS the only law in force for the punishment of refractory
servants resisting their master, mistris or overseer cannot be inflicted
upon negroes, nor the obstinacy of many of them by other then violent
meanes supprest, Be it enacted and declared by this grand assembly, if
any slave resist his master (or other by his masters order correcting
him) and by the extremity of the correction should chance to die, that
his death shall not be accompted ffelony, but the master (or that other
person appointed by the master to punish him) be acquit from
molestation, since it cannot be presumed that prepensed malice (which
alone makes murther ffelony) should induce any man to destroy his owne
estate.October 1670-ACT IV. Noe Negroes nor Indians to buy christian servants.WHEREAS it hath beene questioned whither Indians or negroes
manumited, or otherwise free, could be capable of purchasing christian
servants, It is enacted that noe negroe or Indian though baptised and
enjoyned their owne ffreedome shall be capable of any such purchase of
christians, but yet not debarred from buying any of their owne nation.October 1670-ACT XII. What tyme Indians to serve.[This law created an additional distinction between African
Americans and Native Americans. It was an attempt to make lifetime
servitude the normal condition for all Africans imported into Virginia.
The legislators repealed this statute in November 1682.]WHEREAS some dispute have arisen whither Indians taken in warr by any
other nation, and by that nation that taketh them sold to the English,
are sevants for life or terme of yeares, It is resolved and enacted that
all servants not being christians imported into this colony by shipping
shalbe slaves for their lives; but what shall come by land shall serve,
if boyes or girles, untill thirty yeares of age, if men or women twelve
yeares and no longer.********BACON’S REBELLION OCCURRED AT THIS POINT, IN 1675-76********June 1680-ACT X. An act for preventing Negroes Insurrections.[This law represents an attempt to restrict the freedom and
personal rights of enslaved persons. The members of the Assembly also
decided that a slave who resisted a white individual was to be punished.
The statute designated the punishments for three crimes: leaving a
plantation without the permission of one’s master, raising a hand
against a Christian, and resisting capture after running away.]WHEREAS the frequent meeting of considerbale numbers of negroe slaves
under pretence of feasts and burialls is judged of dangerous
consequence; for prevention whereof for the future, Bee it enacted by
the kings most excellent majestie by and with the consent of the
generall assembly, and it is hereby enacted by the authority aforesaid,
that from and after the publication of this law, it shall not be lawfull
for any negroe or other slave to carry or arme himselfe with any club,
staffe, gunn, sword or any other weapon of defence or offence, nor to
goe or depart from of his masters ground without a certificate from his
master, mistris or overseer and such permission not to be granted but
upon perticuler and necessary occasions. . . . And it is further enacted
by the authority aforesaid that if any negroe or other slave shall
presume to lift up his hand in opposition against any christian, shall
for every such offence, upon due proofe made thereof by the oath of the
party before a magistrate, have and receive thirty lashes on his bare
back well laid on.April 1691-ACT XVI. An act for suppressing outlying slaves.[This document contains the first legal restriction on the
manumission of slaves. The law required a master to transport an
emancipated slave out of the colony within six months. In addition,
partners in an interracial marriage could not stay in Virginia more than
three months after they wed. Lawmakers did not want white women to bear
mulatto children because the free black population would increase. They
decided to punish white women who gave birth to mulattos and to require
a longer term of servitude (until the age of thirty) for these children
than they did for poor orphans or illegitimate white boys (until the
age of twenty-one) and girls (until the age of eighteen). Finally, in
this law, the General Assembly first used the term “white” as an
additional way to legally separate the English and Europeans from
Africans and Native Americans.]For prevention of that abominable mixture and spurious issue which
hereafter may encrease in this dominion, as well by negroes, mulattoes,
and Indians intermarrying with English, or other white women, as by
their unlawfull accompanying with one another, Be it enacted by the
authoritie aforesaid, and it is hereby enacted, that for the time to
come, whatsoever English or other white man or woman being free shall
intermarry with a negroe, mulatto, or Indian man or woman bond or free
shall within three months after such marriage be banished and removed
from this dominion forever, and that the justices of each respective
countie within this dominion make it their perticular care that this act
be put in effectuall execution. And be it further enacted by the
authoritie aforesaid, and it is hereby enacted, That if any English
woman being free shall have a bastard child by any negro or mulatto, she
pay the sume of fifteen pounds sterling, within one moneth after such
bastard child be born, to the Church wardens of the parish where she
shall be delivered of such child . . . and that such bastard child be
bound out as a servant by the said Church wardens untill he or she shall
attaine the age of thirty yeares, and in case such English woman that
shall have such bastard child be a servant, she shall be sold by the
said church wardens, (after her time is expired that she ought by law to
serve her master) for five yeares, and the money she shall be sold for
divided as is before appointed, and the child to serve as aforesaid.And forasmuch as great inconveniences may happen to this country by
the setting of negroes and mulattoes free, by their either entertaining
negro slaves from their masters service, or receiveing stolen goods, or
being grown old bringing a charge upon the country; for prevention
thereof, Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, and it is hereby
enacted, That no negro or mulatto be after the end of this present
session of assembly set free by any person or persons whatsoever, unless
such person or persons, their heires, executors or administrators pay
for the transportation of such negro or negroes out of the countrey
within six moneths after such setting them free.April 1692-ACT III. An act for the more speedy prosecution of slaves committing Capitall Crimes.[This statute decreed that enslaved individuals were not permitted to own horses, cattle, and hogs after December 31, 1692.]And be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, and it is hereby
enacted, That all horses, cattle and hoggs marked of any negro or other
slaves marke, or by any slave kept, and which shall not by the last day
of December next, be converted by the owner of such slave to the use and
marke of the said owner, shall be forfeited to the use of the poore of
the parish wherein such horse, beast, or hogg shall be kept, seizable by
the church wardens thereof.October 1705-CHAP. XLIX. An act concerning Servants and Slaves.[This statute included a definition of who would become a slave
upon entering Virginia and repeated previous restrictions placed upon
enslaved persons in addition to new constraints. The law contained some
modifications on the punishments placed on white women who bore a
mulatto child and white individuals who married a person of color in
1691. The legislators made it clear that Christianity was not the path
to freedom for a slave.]IV. And also be it enacted, by the authority aforesaid, and it is
hereby enacted, That all servants imported and brought into this
country, by sea or land, who were not christians in their native
country, (except Turks and Moors in amity with her majesty, and others
that can make due proof their being free in England, or any other
christian country, before they were shipped, in order to transportation
hither) shall be accounted and be slaves, and as such be here bought and
sold notwithstanding a conversion to christianity afterwards.VI. Provided always, That a slave’s being in England, shall not be
sufficient to discharge him of his slavery, without other proof of his
being manumitted there.VII.And also be in enacted, by the authority aforesaid, and it is hereby enacted,
That all masters and owners of servants, shall find and provide for
their servants, wholesome and competent diet, clothing, and lodging, by
the discretion of the county court; and shall not, at any time, give
immoderate correction; neither shall, at any time, whip a christian
white servant naked, without an order from a justice of the peace: And
if any, notwithstanding this act, shall presume to whip a christian
white servant naked, without such order, the person so offending, shall
forfeit and pay for the same, forty shillings sterling to the party
injured.XIX. And for a further prevention of that abominable mixture and
spurious issue, which hereafter may increase in this her majesty’s
colony and dominion, as well by English, and other white men and women
intermarrying with negroes or mulattos, as by their unlawful coition
with them, Be it enacted, by the authority aforesaid, and it is hereby
enacted, That whatsoever English, or other white man or woman, being
free, shall intermarry with a negro or mulatto man or woman, bond or
free, shall, by judgment of the county court, be committed to prison,
and there remain, during the space of six months, without bail or
mainprize; and shall forfeit and pay ten pounds current money of
Virginia, to the use of the parish, as aforesaid.XX. And be it further enacted, That no minister of the church of
England, or other minister, or person whatsoever, within this colony and
dominion, shall hereafter wittingly presume to marry a white man with a
negro or mulatto woman; or to marry a white woman with a negro or
mulatto man . . . .1723—An Act
directing the trial of Slaves, committing capital crimes; and for the
more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them; and for
the better government of Negros, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or freeXVII. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid,
That no negro, mullatto, or indian slaves, shall be set free, upon any
pretence whatsoever, except for some meritorious services, to be
adjudged and allowed by the governor and council, for the time being,
and a licence thereupon first had and obtained. −− And that, where any
slave shall be set free by his master or owner, otherwise than is herein
before directed, it shall and may be lawful for the churchwardens of
the parish, wherein such negro, mullatto, or indian, shall reside for
the space of one month, next after his or her being set free, and they
are hereby authorized and required, to take up, and sell the said negro,
mullatto, or indian, as slaves, at the next court held for the said
county, by public outcry. . . .XXII. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid,
That where any female mullatto, or indian, by law obliged to serve
’till the age of thirty or thirty-one years, shall during the time of
her servitude, have any child born of her body, every such child shall
serve the master or mistress of such mullatto or indian, until it shall
attain the same age the mother of such child was obliged by law to serve
unto.XXIII. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, and it is hereby enacted and declared,
That no free negro, mullatto, or indian whatsoever, shall hereafter
have any vote at the election of burgesses, or any other election
whatsoever.
Requirements: 1000

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